Monday, March 16, 2020

Cognitive Psychology Defined

Cognitive Psychology Defined Free Online Research Papers What is Cognitive Psychology? Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes. This includes thought, emotion, memory storage and recall, decision-making skills, logic, and problem solving. The basis for cognitive psychology started in Ancient Greece with the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle, and development of this genre continues today. Over the years, many have tried to discredit cognitive psychology as a true science, but it has proven to be a valid perspective in the field of human study (Willingham, 2007). Philosophical Beginnings The question of how the mind works was first studied by Ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle. Although their scientific methods were crude and did not necessarily prove anything, the questions they raised were valid and psychologists and scientists have attempted to answer them ever since. Ancient philosophers did raise some valid points about human development, one of which being the systematic function of the world and human life, allowing for some prediction of life events. Another important point is that life events center on what is happening in the world around a person and his or her place in it, and do not depend on mystical events or spiritual intervention, per se (Willingham, 2007). With the progress of science during the Renaissance period, the development of nondeterministic views unleashed the concepts of free will and the soul, leading to the diminishment of study of the human mind for a time. Later, during the 17th century, Rene Descartes and others would raise the questions once again of where thoughts come from, and introduce science back to psychology with the concepts of memory and perception (Willingham, 2007). The Foundation of Psychology and the Development of Behaviorism In the 19th century, William Wundt was credited for the foundation of modern psychology. Wundt began the first psychological journals and studies of psychology in universities. He convinced the scholarly world that psychology was a valid science because of his structuralist views on it. Meanwhile, William James would focus on the purpose of mental processes known as functionalism (Willingham, 2007). John Watson questioned James’ and Wundt’s theories. Watson would permanently link psychology to science by introducing the behaviorist perspective to psychology. Watson defined behaviorism as the ability to predict and control behavior by determining that the only observable form of human thought rests in their behavior, which can be broken down into the simplest building blocks to relate all people’s basic actions (Willingham, 2007). The Impact of Behaviorism on Cognitive Psychology In the early 20th century, behaviorism became the main focus of all psychology. Concepts of soul and mind went out the window because the only observable form of psychology was behavior. People can see how others behave, but they cannot see the thoughts that make them react, so the simplicity of behaviorism was readily accepted by all. The most famous example of this was Ivan Pavlov’s dog experiment, in which the association of behavior and stimulus was recorded (Willingham, 2007). In the latter 20th century, people’s faith in behaviorism began to decline. Most of the experiments conducted about it were done using animals, which surely must be a lesser being than humans. Additionally, the question of where behavior actually comes from dawned to give rise to the quest to know what mental processes take place to produce it (Willingham, 2007). One of the actions behaviorism left unexplained was language. B.F. Skinner would be the first to pose the question, how can we study language in animals that cannot speak? Though Skinner would fail to explain this adequately in his book Verbal Behavior (1957), he would pose many questions that led to the disintegration of behaviorism and the birth of cognitive psychology (Willingham, 2007). Were it not for the failure of behaviorism, so widely accepted, cognitive psychology may never have existed. Also, behaviorism asked an important question: Why do people act the way they do? Cognitive psychology simply took this one step further and asked: What mental processes take place to produce thoughts and behavior? To answer this question, behavior must be observed closely when treating clients from a cognitive perspective. If one changes the mental processes that control their behavior, then the observer must ensure that the correct process has been changed in order to produce the desired effect. Technology Proves Psychology Some of the most important psychological discoveries of the 20th and 21st centuries have occurred because of neuroscience. Neuroscience has laid the explanatory groundwork for localization of many functions within the brain, permitting the further study of each specific area based on the knowledge of the senses or jobs it controls. Later technology would develop a three-dimensional x-ray of the brain called a computed tomography (CT scan) that would permit doctors to see specific areas that might be damaged. With magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an even better picture can be obtained. With an electroencephalogram (EEG), electrical activity can be measured to gauge how and when neurons fire in the brain. Even better than all these are the positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. These produce three-dimensional, colored images of the brain and show neural activity in the same picture (Willingham, 2007). Aside from neuroscience, the technological development of the computer has helped all people to have a better concept of the brain and mind. Computers in the 21st century are smaller and better than ever. They multitask with ease at the fastest speed ever. The comparison of the computer to the mind makes sense to most people (Willingham, 2007). The brain that controls the human mind and behavior is analogous to a supercomputer whose complete power is not completely understood yet by man. Conclusion Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes. It has its roots in introspective philosophy as well as behavioral science. Cognitive psychology also attempts to explain behavior with the mind/body connection, a concept once swept under the rug as incredible. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is successful in many examples and case studies in the last fifty years and is still widely used in psychology today. References Willingham, D. (2007). Cognition: The thinking animal (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Allyn Bacon. Research Papers on Cognitive Psychology DefinedThree Concepts of PsychodynamicEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenMind TravelThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfHip-Hop is ArtCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite ReligionResearch Process Part OneArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)

Friday, February 28, 2020

Concepts and principles of emergency management Essay

Concepts and principles of emergency management - Essay Example In Australia, latest statistics on car accidents seem to indicate that road accidents are increasing in frequency; road deaths associated to such car accidents are also increasing. In 2005, Australia already ranked 7th out of 15 developed nations for road deaths per 100 million vehicle kilometres travelled (Fallah, 2007). Emergencies -- are â€Å"incidents that threaten public safety, health and welfare (Department of Environmental Management, n.d, p. 1). Emergencies may also vary in size, location, causes, and effects; but regardless of differences in such elements, they all register with various environmental effects. They are also defined by the Emergency Management Institute (n.d) as unexpected incidents or events which endanger lives or property, consequently requiring urgent and routine responses through community resources and procedures. Examples include: road-blocking landslides, long power outages, forest fires, outbreaks of diseases, and heat waves (Central Coast Center Independent Living, n.d). There were two slides in Australia from 1939 to 2007; 28 were killed and about 101 individuals were affected (CRED, 2007). There were 28 wild fires from 1939 to 2007 and this caused the death of about 300 individuals and damages up to 1.2 million US dollars (CRED, 2007). There was one epidemic fro m 1939 to 2007. No deaths and no damages were reported but 6 people were affected (CRED, 2007). Disasters are defined by Emergency Management Australia (2004, p. ix) as â€Å"a condition or situation of significant destruction, disruption and/or distress to a community†. The United Nations (1992) define a disaster as â€Å"a serious disruption of the functioning of society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of affected society to cope using its own resources† (UN Glossary, 1992).

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

FASB Codification System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

FASB Codification System - Essay Example professionals along with investors and analysts a professional view where many state of the art utilities offers wide feature, search facility and navigating contents. It gives information on the accounting standards, cross referencing and navigating. Also there is printer friendly source utility for viewing source references. So basically it allows the professionals to keep update on accounting standards, information, and location of member, conduct research and locate professional around the network. 3. The nine contents areas located in the FASB codification system are General principles, presentations, assets, liabilities, equity, revenue, expenses, broad transactions and industry. Thus the codification system is an organized structure with comprehensive topics. These subdivided nine topics have sections and paragraphs. 4. The nine contents have types of items and general principles detail on all the accounting principles and laws to simplify users access. The presentation offers guidance on the preparation of income and financial statement purpose and calculating earnings per share. The asset content has information on investments, accounting receivables and inventory. Liability section has assets retirement and environment obligations, contingencies, distinguishing liabilities from equity and accounting principles. The equity section explains status, recognition and SEC material required to record equity based payment to non – employees. The revenue area informs accounting professional about revenue recognition and accounting standard updates. Expenses guides on procedures to report stock compensation, compensation research and development with regard to preparing income taxes. The broad transaction gives information on business combination, consolidation, fair value measurement and disclo sure, leases and financial instruments. Finally, the industry section gives user in regard to industries including oil and gas, dealers, brokers and

Friday, January 31, 2020

Balance Scorecard and Strategy Map of TESCO Coursework

Balance Scorecard and Strategy Map of TESCO - Coursework Example The areas where the implementation has been done and how the company has achieved the vision and the objectives have been analysed in this essay. The report has been concluded with a set of recommendations for the Tesco board of Directors and also an evaluation of the Balance scorecard and the strategy map as a management tool. Introduction The balanced scorecard strategy is one of the most accepted management and strategic planning tool. The balance scorecard is delivered in a structured format with different design methods as well as tools that would help the company in the decision making and strategy formulation. Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton has laid the foundation of this balanced scorecard method which takes into consideration not only the financial aspects but also the non financial strategies that are essential for the success of an organisation. Tesco plc is one of the leading grocery retailer based in Britain. In terms of profits the company is second largest in the world. As many as 6351 stores cater to the customers. Tesco has a global presence and has diversified into the financial services, telecommunication services as well as media and entertainment industry. The diversification was not only confined to product but was also done geographically. In order to achieve the success that the brand has got, various strategies had to be taken in the entire life of the brand. This report is an analysis of the different strategies that Tesco had taken in order to maintain it consistent growth and to maintain a competitive advantage among the other brands in the industry. Vision and Strategy The customers occupy a pivotal position in the formulation of the vision and the strategy of the company. The company aims at providing the high quality products and services for the customers. The vision of the company is to get the value for the customers so that the customers become loyal to the brand name of Tesco for their life time. Some of the goals of th e company which are ingrained in the minds of the employees include the ideal of doing the best and trying in the hardest way to deliver the services to the customers. Another important aspect of the ideal of Tesco is that the company treats the customer in a way in which the company itself would like to be treated (Tesco Plc, 2011, pp. 4-5). The company from time to time renews and reconstructs the vision. The vision of Tesco is to be the most superior valued company in the global scenario. This high value would not only be confined to the customers but also would be applicable for the employees as well as the communities which Tesco serves. The contentment of the shareholders is also another important point that the company takes care of. For achieving the goals and the vision Tesco implements various strategies that help the companies fulfil the ideals. The company applies the strategy of winning the share of each local market. This strategy is implemented throughout the globe to get a global dominance of the brand. In other words instead of an integrated unique strategy, each of the target markets are captured through taking various strategies in the different markets. The company believes that the retail businesses vary across the globe and a each of the markets have a different characteristic. Thus the local market of Europe would be different from the local market

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Upton Sinclairs The Jungle and the Meat-Packing Industry Today Essay

Meatpacking pertains to the raising, slaughtering, packaging and processing of livestock such as pigs, cows, and chickens. Prior to slaughter, animals are grown and fed. Food borne illness and pathogens still plague the meatpacking industry since the creation of meatpacking. The government plays a huge role in providing legislation and ensuring the safety of meat products and business. Although the government is meant to inspect and guarantee safety, many unlawful practices appear overlooked pertaining to the safety of meat for consumers. Meatpacking commenced thousands of years ago, and the safety of the meatpacking industry has been evaluated greatly since the industrial revolution in America. The history of the meatpacking industry in America, the impact of literature such as the novel of the jungle written by Upton Sinclair, the rendering and irradiation of meat, and current worker issues contribute to the horrible safety precautions as well as the awful environment inv olving the meatpacking industry. Meatpacking served as solely a family business up until the 17th century. As population in America grew immensely, industry as well as urbanization created a demand for meat product. Consequently, heavy industry quickly replaced traditional practices. Local meat stores grew into enormous companies and businesses that processed thousands of animals each day into fresh meat ("Meat Industry"). At the emergence of the 20th century, 4 major meat packing corporations took over small meatpacking companies and family owned businesses. The 4 major companies at the time consisted of the Armour, Swift, Morns, and national packing. The â€Å"Big Four† meat packing companies centralized their operations in a few cities ("BRIA 24 1 B ... ...s not a top priority. As the meat industry demonstrates a few pros, the cons outweigh drastically. Works Cited "BRIA 24 1 B Upton Sinclairs The Jungle: Muckraking the Meat-Packing Industry." Constitutional Rights Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. Greenhouse, Steven. "US: Meat Packing Industry Criticized on Human Rights Grounds." New York Times. N.p., 25 Jan. 2005. Web. 19 Apr. 2014. H.C. White. Chicago - Meat Packing Industry: Dropping Hides and Splitting Chucks, Beef Dept., Swift & Co.'s Packing House. Digital image. Library of Congress. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2014. Kallen, Stuart A. Food Safety. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2005. Print. "Meat Industry." Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online, n.d. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. "Meatpacking in America: Still a Jungle Out There? . NOW |." PBS. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Management and Leadership: Military Essay

Introduction Though popular consensus is that management and leadership are interchangeable terms with the same purpose and meaning nothing could be further from the truth. Management can be defined as influencing one or more person’s actions and activities through planning, organizing, leading, controlling and guiding toward accomplishing set goals or objectives. Leadership can be defined as effectively influencing and directing others in a manner that encourages obedience, confidence and loyal team support in accomplishing organizational goals. From these two definitions one might have a subtle hint as to how management and leadership differ. The purpose of this paper is to differentiate between managerial and leadership positions within military organizations, describe the roles that military managers and leaders play in creating and maintaining a healthy organizational culture, and explain how the four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture within military organizations. The final discussion will include two recommendations to create and maintain a healthy  organizational culture. Leadership and Management Just as the definitions suggest a distinct deference between management and leadership all military organizations have distinctive positions for management and leadership purposes. Military organizations use a designated ranking structure for the purpose of immediate distinction between management and leadership. Leadership personnel hold the title of officer in all branches of military service. Management personnel hold the title of noncommissioned officer (NCO). While officers are immediately recruited and appointed into the leadership position NCO’s have to earn their title and managerial position in the course of progression through the ranks from private to NCO. Though these two positions differ on many levels each is equally important to military organizational culture. â€Å"A leader is anyone who by virtue of assumed role or assigned responsibility inspires and influences people to accomplish organizational goals† (FM 6-22, 2006). Therefore, an officer’s (leaders) main focus is to motivate soldiers both inside and outside of their immediate chain of command to pursue actions, focus thinking, and shape decisions for the greater good of the organization (FM 6-22, 2006). Officers influence military personnel by setting a personal example (leading by example) on and off duty hours. Officer’s actions have a direct correlation to the amount of influence they will have in conveying purpose and vision, providing direction and motivating others. Being able to convey purpose and vision is important for officers’ to give subordinates the reason to take the necessary steps needed to accomplish missions. Open communication is essential in providing clear direction on how subordinates will go about accomplishing the mission. In order to provide clear direction officers are responsible for prioritizing mission tasks, assigning responsibilities and confirming that subordinates understand all directives given. Motivation is the key to encouraging subordinates to do whatever is necessary to accomplish the mission. An officers’ role in motivation is to understand or get to know as much as  possible about the needs, capabilities or limitations of his or her subordinates to determine what motivates who and personally praise or encourage when necessary. The process of getting subordinates to do whatever is necessary to accomplish the mission falls to the NCO (managers). According to Army Regulation 5-1 (2002) â€Å"management is linked with leadership, just as doctrine, systems, processes, facilities and equipment are connected with the people who use them.† Therefore, NCO’s have the authority to make decisions based on the needs of set missions in accordance with organizational policies. The NCO’s main focus is on daily operations, and immediate subordinate’s actions toward accomplishing set tasks in order to fulfill missions. The NCO’s mission is to provide instruction and supervision over subordinates to ensure tasks are being performed effectively, efficiently and in a timely manner. NCO’s implement the four functions of management in every mission presented. Planning is used to determine a working strategy to accomplish each mission assigned to the division. NCO’s will use organizing to determine how to break down missions into smaller tasks that can be performed over time. Once tasks and timelines have been determined human resources (available manpower) is evaluated according to knowledge and experience to determine who will be most effective on which task then tasks are assigned to individuals or teams. Once teams are assigned work commences and leading begins. NCO’s are responsible for overseeing each team’s daily progress, making on the spot corrections, giving additional instruction, motivating and directing each team to ensure that all projects are going according to schedule and all workers are performing effectively and efficiently toward achieving set goals. When issues arise NCO’s are responsible for controlling situations through risk management, bringing subordinates back on track, on the spot training, enforcing organizational rules and regulations and so forth. Types of controls that are used in any given situation will vary depending on an individual’s leadership or management style. Though leadership and management styles vary depending on individual  preference three specific styles stand out with both officers and NCO’s in military organizations: (1) autocratic, (2) participative and (3) delegating. Bateman and Snell (2007) describe each of these strategies as: Autocratic: leaders and or managers make decisions about what needs to be done at their own discretion then tell subordinates what to do and how they want it done. Participative: leaders and or managers will involve one or more subordinates in the decision making process on specific task planning and organizing. Delegating: leaders or managers will delegate authority to capable subordinates allowing them to make decisions for specific tasks while the leader or manager will still take full responsibility for any decision that was made through delegation. Each style is effective in its own right and in specific circumstances. Officers and NCO’s who use all three styles at different times are more effective than those who just stick to one. Organizational Culture Organizational culture is the basic nature or overall actions and conduct of an organization based on shared values and goals. In order to have a fuller understanding of military organizational culture one would need to grasp military organizational structure. Military organizations use a hierarchical divisional organizational structure. Bateman and Snell (2007) describe a divisional organization structure as â€Å"departmentalization that groups units around products, customers, or geographic regions.† Military divisional organizational structure is based around geographic regions. See Chart 1 for a visual break down of basic military organizational structure. DIVISIONAL ORGANIZATION: BASIC MILITARY ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Chart 1: Divisional Organization: Basic Military Organizational Structure. Notice that the basic structure consists of Officers; NCO’s and subordinates (enlisted soldiers). From the battalion level down to platoons each leader is accompanied by a manager. Information goes down the chain of command while requests go up the chain of command. Military culture is based on strict adherence to the chain of command and company policies i.e. subordinates would have to go through the squad leader and the platoon sergeant to speak to the first sergeant and so forth up the chain. Basic military organizational structure and culture is learned in _basic training_ (boot camp) where new recruits, both officers and enlisted personnel, undergo rigorous physical, mental and emotional training to establish military values and team building experience. Graduates are then separated and sent to _advance individual training_ (AIT) schools to learn specific trade skills. Through shared experiences from basic training new team building experiences develop. Again, graduates are separated and assigned to units based on their field of training. Shared experiences are the foundation for unit cohesiveness among all military personnel. While common experiences may vary they open the path for shared ideas, values, responsibility and perceptions of military uniformity to military organizational culture that guides all military personnel toward achieving common personal and organizational goals throughout their career. Though troops and their families are uprooted and moved from post to post at the needs of the military, sometimes at a moments notice, shared experiences and personal and professional commitment to military values and mission preserve the military organizational culture. Military organizational culture is more than a commitment. Military organizational culture is a way of life for all who dedicate their lives to honor and defend this nation against all enemies, foreign and domestic. Recommendations Military organizational culture is a culture that has stood the test of time decade after decade. Retired war heroes and new recruits all have one thing  in common. Each has a _common bond_ through shared experiences, dedication to military values, mission, ethics, code of conduct and so forth. Young or old, each has dedicated themselves to something bigger than themselves and committed their lives to honor and defend this nation’s freedom at all cost. While military culture has been mocked and scorned by many over the years, much can be learned from such a strong organizational culture. Many failing organizations in today’s challenging business environment would do well to incorporate some of the standards of military organizational culture into their own business. Having _strong core values_ in place is the basis for creating and maintaining a healthy organizational culture. Military organizational culture consists of strong core values such as: â€Å"loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity and courage† (U.S. Army web site, 2008). While some of these values could be considered strictly military oriented all organizations could agree that loyalty, duty, honor and integrity could be considered universal. More companies could and should integrate these types of core values into their mission and values statements to help create and maintain a more healthy organizational culture. Having a _code of conduct_ in place establishes guidelines for acceptable employee behavior which helps create and maintain a healthy organizational culture. Military organizations have established a strong code of conduct which describes separate and military distinctive areas of specific conduct becoming of service members. While the truth is that the military code of conduct is not applicable to civilian organizations all organizations could agree that specific behaviors do exist that are expected of all people within specialized organizations. Therefore, organizations could and should come up with a written policy explaining specific behaviors and actions that are acceptable and expected of all employees. Organizations may even have separate codes of conduct expectations for managers versus employees. The point here is to have an established and acceptable pattern of behavior for all employees to follow in order help maintain an overall healthy organizational culture. Conclusion From the research presented one can conclude that distinct differences between leaders and managers do exist. Leaders mainly focus on inspiring and motivating individuals toward accomplishing set goals. Managers mainly focus on motivating individuals through planning, organizing, leading and controlling functions of management. Based on these descriptions the main difference between management and leadership would be the method used to motivate individuals to accomplish goals. Though organizational structures may differ from one organization to the next organizational structure does help set the foundation for organizational culture. Organizational culture sets the tone for organizational success through shared experiences, values, beliefs and behaviors. Though many theories exist for creating and maintaining a healthy organizational culture each organization must come up with standards i.e. core values, code of ethics and so on that are unique and attainable to that particular organization based on specific needs i.e. values, mission and purpose. References Army Regulation 5-1. (2002). Management: Total Army Quality Management. Retrieved July 11, 2008, from http://www.hqda.army.mil/leadingchange/Army%20Policies/r5-1.pdf Bateman T., and Snell S., (2007), Management: Leading & Collaborating in a Competitive World (7th Ed.), McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York, NY. FM 6-22. (2006). Army Leadership: Competent, Confident, and Agile. Retrieved July 10, 2008 http://usacac.army.mil/cac/cal/FM6_22.pdf U.S. Army web site. (2008). U.S. Army: Training and Doctrine Command. Retrieved July 15, 2008, from http://www.tradoc.army.mil/

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

India s High Oil Spill And Its Impact On Human Health Essay

2 Literature Review Lee Barber, Geeva Varghese, Designing capability for offshore response- a consultant perspective, SPE SPE-158005-PP, 2012 India’s lack in capability to attend to Tier-I oil spill has been discussed in this paper. Recommendations and the way forward for India’s readiness to face oil spill disasters has been mentioned. Dr. B. N Desai, Dr. L. U. Joshi, Dr. S.P. Fondekar. Bombay High oil spill and its impact, National Institute of Oceanography, 1993. An oil spill disaster which happened on 17 May 1993, north of Bombay shore has been discussed in detail in this paper. Study was also conducted to study the aftereffects of oil spill in Mumbai region. Aguilera, F., Mà ©ndez, J., Pà ¡saro, E., and Laffon, B. Review on the effects of exposure to spilled oils on human health. Journal of Applied Toxicology 10.1002/jat.1521, 2010. Dangers caused by oil spill on human beings as well as flora and fauna has been discussed in detail in this paper. Also throwing some light on how to use protective gears to avoid contact with oil slick has been dealt in detail. Government websites for Indian fisheries as well as tourism was looked upon for retrieving data sans statistics for analysis purpose. 3 Objectives 3.1 Purpose of the Study Is India capable of handling man-made environmental disasters such as Marine oil Spill? Scope:- By addressing the issues involved in a marine oil spill on Indian coastal waters, it would help in analyzing the economic and environmentalShow MoreRelatedDeepwater Horizon Oil Spill : A Human Rights Issue3290 Words   |  14 Pages2015 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Human Rights Issue In April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded, polluting the Gulf of Mexico with 4.9 million barrels of oil (EPA, 2015). This disaster is known as the BP oil spill, and is regarded as one of the worst environmental catastrophes in American history. 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